This piece, “Hackathons and the Making of Entrepreneurial Citizenship,” comes from my ethnographic work on design as nation building in India. It will appear in a special issue on the politics of hacking edited by Johann Soderberg and Alessandro Delfanti in Science, Technology & Human Values.
From the abstract: “Hackathons sometimes produce technologies, and they always, however, produce subjects. This article argues that the hackathon rehearses an entrepreneurial citizenship celebrated in transnational cultures that orient toward Silicon Valley for models of social change. Such optimistic, high-velocity practice aligns, in India, with middle-class politics that favor quick and forceful action with socially similar collaborators over the contestations of mass democracy or the slow construction of coalition across difference. “
Our paper “We Are Dynamo: Overcoming Stalling and Friction in Collective Action for Crowd Workers” has been accepted for publication and awarded an honorable mention at CHI 2015. The paper comes out of a collaboration with professional Mechanical Turk workers (including co-authors Kristy Milland and Clickhappier) and Computer Scientists at Stanford. We built a system, We Are Dynamo, to create a protected space for online crowdworkers to propose and debate organizing tactics for activism. The intervention is both technical configuration and an attempt to change discourse about Turkers and their futures.
The system and the campaigns it supported seem to have done so, gaining coverage in both international news media and the tech press: Intellectual Piecework (Chronicle of Higher Education), Amazon’s Mechanical Turk workers protest: ‘I am a human being, not an algorithm’ (The Guardian), Amazon’s Turkers Kick Off the First Crowdsourced Labor Guild (The Daily Beast), Amazon’s Mechanical Turk workers want to be treated like humans (Engadget).
I reviewed The Second Machine Age by Brynjolfsson and McAfee and Mindless by Simon Head for Public Books. The essay, entitled Justice for “Data Janitors” looks at the value of labor in the production of technological “magic.”
I’ve had a new piece come out in South Atlantic Quarterly as part of a great special issue on extraction, logistics, and finance. The piece is entitled Difference and Dependence among Digital Workers: The Case of Amazon Mechanical Turk. In it, I explain the implications of organizing crowdworkers as programmable “human computation,” both for the subjectivities of highly valued tech workers, the valuations of their companies, and the limits of solidarity among the multitudes.
In an essay in ACM’s interactions magazine, Six Silberman and I write about the transformation of Turkopticon from a critical design project into an infrastructure some depend on, and what that tells us about the limits of focusing on design and innovation. I was especially excited to see that this one, unlike the standard scholarly paper, has an illustrator’s interpretations of the argument!
I have permission to share the PDF for non-commercial, educational uses so have at it: From Critical Design to Critical Infrastructure
I’m helping organize this conference. Workers, scholars, activists, organizers, we hope to bring you together around these questions. There is some funding available to support travel and attendance of digital workers! See the call
Find the OnlineFirst piece at New Media & Society or the preprint here if you don’t have access to NMS
Crowdsourcing systems do more than get information work done. This paper argues that microwork systems produce the difference between “innovative” laborers and “menial” laborers, ameliorating resulting tensions in new media production cultures in turn. This paper focuses on Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) as an emblematic case of microwork crowdsourcing. Ethical research on crowdsourcing has focused on questions of worker fairness and microlabor alienation. This paper focuses on the cultural work of AMT’s mediations: divisions of labor and software interfaces. This paper draws from infrastructure studies and feminist science and technology studies to examine Amazon Mechanical Turk labor practice, its methods of worker control, and the kinds of users it produces.
As S.L. Irani-Silberman, Six and I wrote an essay “Interrupting Invisibilities and Bridging Worlds.” Disobedience was the theme of the essay competition theme. Our essay examines what Turkopticon accomplishes and how it falls short as an act of disobedience in cultures of technology. Our essay is published on Untitled, PNCA’s web journal. Find it here.
Turkopticon was the focus of a story “Software Aims to Ensure Fairness in Crowdsourcing” in the August 2013 issue of the Communications of the ACM, the widely-read magazine of the Association for Computing Machinery. For me, coverage in the premier computing association magazine gives me a sense of triumph, as if we scaled the walls of the Computer Science (CS) profession somehow. Questions of politics and ethics are often marginal within CS departments; our hope was that Turkopticon might draw attention to the labor and power issues in computation not only among communication scholars, but also among the computer scientists building these labor systems.
I will be participating in the UCHRI working group Humanities and Work in 2013-2014. The group brings researchers from across the UCs to examine how the work of the humanities changes with changes in globalization, production, and cultural conceptions of work. Learn more at UCHRI